The different perspectives on the nature of mathematics, pedagogical practices, assessment modalities, etc. have been prevalent in the field of mathematics education across the world. Moreover, mathematics is a field of study that enables students to think logically, systematically, creatively, and critically, analyze and interpret various real-world problems and situations, predict, plan, make a decision to solve those problems. However, on the one hand, instead of engaging students in solving real-world problems, teachers are mostly found to be engaging students in solving routine problems of textbooks, thereby killing the students’ creative, critical, and problem-solving skills. On the other hand, teachers are found to be playing a victim game by blaming their students for being less attentive, having an empty mind, etc. instead of improving their teaching strategies through critical self-reflection. In this context, action research can support teachers to improve their pedagogical practices for active learning through critical self-reflection. Moreover, action research is a cyclic process that passes through different stages – identify the problem, plan, act and reflect and is implemented in a natural environment. Therefore, this course takes all students on the journey of solving teaching and learning mathematics problems using an action research cycle in the natural environment.